Thanks to the determination and cooperation of researchers from around the world, it was possible to identify the genomic sequence of SARS-CoV-2. A good target for a potential COVID-19 vaccine was found to be the S-peak protein on the ‘spikes’ on the surface of the virus. In the case of the SARS-CoV-1 SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, this protein interacts with the ACE2 receptor.
It turned out that antibodies against the S protein can disrupt this binding and neutralize the dangerous virus. Since no vaccines against human coronaviruses existed on the market so far, it was necessary to create one from scratch, which requires huge resources and time.
There is great hope for scientists to overcome the pandemic with an mRNA-based COVID vaccine that expresses the target viral antigen in vivo in a vaccinated person after liposomal mRNA injection. A vaccine of this type was developed, for example, by the Moderna company. WE RECOMMEND: CORONAVIRUS VACCINATION CALENDAR CLINICAL STUDIES OF THE SARS-COV-2 VACCINE.
Vaccines based on recombinant spike protein SARS-CoV-2, vaccines based on viral vectors and viruses containing atenovid-19 are subject to intensive evaluation in clinical trials. All types of preparations have their advantages and disadvantages. Experts emphasize that in the case of great commitment and determination, the schedule of clinical trials on new vaccines can be compressed up to 12-15 months.
However, the production capacity of pharmaceutical companies, which have to deal with the huge demand for vaccines, remains a separate issue. Finally, the challenge is the distribution of COIVD-19 vaccines, their storage and administration to patients.